Bassma Kodmani is executive director of the Arab Reform Initiative. Between 2005 and 2011, she held the positions of senior adviser on international cooperation to the French National Research Council; senior visiting scholar at the Collège de France and advisor to the Director of the Académie Diplomatique Internationale. . From 1999 to 2005 she headed the Governance and International Cooperation Programme at the Ford Foundation office for the Middle East and North Africa. She is author of the book Abattre les Murs (Liana Levi, 2008). Her latest publication of relevance is an ARI report entitled “Empowering Democratic Armed Groups in Syria” (2013) Previously she established and directed the Middle East Programme at the Institut Français des Relations Internationales, Paris, and was associate professor of International Relations at Paris University.